Improving the retention and GPAs of Black males at a primarily white institution: A living and learning community approach


Cintron, D.W., Hines, E. M., Singleton II, P., & Golden, M. N.


1 April 2020

Publication details

Journal of African American Males in Education (JAAME), 11(1), 37-57.



This study provides the results of a two-year follow-up evaluation on the influence of an undergraduate living and learning community (LLC) on Black male achievement at a Primarily White Institution (PWI). The LLC was implemented at the PWI to improve the retention and academic outcomes of Black males. In the Fall of 2016, the LLC accepted its first cohort of 44 students (treatment group). Given the self-selection of individuals into this LLC, this study uses a quasi-experimental approach to evaluate the impact of the LLC. Two control groups were identified using institutional demographic and background data. The two control groups for this study consisted of a propensity score matching (N = 70) control group and a random sample (N = 155) control group. Two-year follow-up survival and latent growth curve analysis results provide evidence that the treatment group had higher gains in retention and grade point average (GPA) than both control groups. Altogether, the results demonstrate the measurable short-term impact of the LLC approach for Black males at a PWI.